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Philip Randle described the Randle Cycle (aka Randle Effect) in 1963 as an explanation of how the human physiology determines glucose or fat metabolism, which determined by the body being in either a fasted or fed state. When in insulin levels are low, the body is in a fasted state and conversely, when insulin levels are high, the body is in a fed state. When the body is in fed state, the mitochondria favour glucose metabolism and inhibits fat metabolism. When the body is in a fasted state, the body favours fat metabolism and inhibits glucose metabolism.

I became aware of the effect of the Randle Cycle after I stopped taking Dapagliflozin (Forxiga/Farxiga). After being off of Forxiga for two weeks, I noticed that the Dawn Phenomenon became more pronounced and took longer to wear off. Others on a fat-adapted (eg, ketogenic) diet have also reported a similar situation and some describe it as psysiological insulin resistance. This occurs because the liver responds to waking hormonal changes and "dumps" glucose into the bloodstream, which significantly boosts serum glucose. Dr Ben Bikman (see Diet Doctor Podcast #35 @ 13:04) states he believes this situation is "acute glucose intolerance" rather than insulin resistance because psysiologially the body has extremely low insulin levels and will readily respond to an influx of insulin. With this glucose intolerance (aka carbohydrate intolerance), hyperinsulinemia is NOT present and the pancreas does not appear to be responding to the endogenous glucose produced by the liver. This has also been described as "Adaptive Glucose Sparing" because, although the liver raises serum glucose from the Dawn Phenomenon, tissues have been adapted to using ketones and no-longer require as much glucose for fuel. This cause the body to clear glucose in a much longer period than a someone who is not fat-adapted.  The body readily switches back to glucose metabolism within a day or two of consuming carbohydrates.  It appears that high morning glucose on a low-carb diet is normal and healthy but I'm not sure how this impacts the HbA1c. I found that physical exertion readily consumes this excess glucose so a brisk morning walk is a great way to start the day.