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Glucose Pathology

Glycated Proteins (Advanced Glycation End-products - AGEs) have a multiple of nasty effects in the body in addition to damaging LDL cholesterol from healthy Pattern A to CVD-causing Pattern B. Related to Cadiovascular Disease is peripheral artery disease (blockage in arteries leading to the limbs) and carotid artery disease (blockage in arteries leading to the brain). High blood glucose is responsible for also causing:

  • Retinopathy - damage to blood vessels in the retina
  • Nephropathy - damages to the tiny filtering units of the kidney
  • Neuropathy - damage to nerves, often causing a loss of sensation in the feet and toes
  • Microvascular Disease - damage to capillaries
  • Pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and necrosis
  • Osteoarthritis - damage to cartilage
  • Fibromyalgia - widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues
  • Cancer - links between obesity and cancer.
  • Premature Aging - premature cellular senescence in human skin fibroblast and higher degree of collagen cross-links
  • Gout - crystals resulting from high uric acid levels and glucose
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome & benign prostatic hyperplasia (prostate enlargement)

Researchers have found a link between Alzheimer's Disease and insulin resistance and some have gone as far as identifying Alzheimer's Disease as Type 3 Diabetes.  See Dementia.

Insulin Pathology

People being treated for Type 2 Diabetes with insulin injections often require increasingly higher doses of insulin to combat insulin resistance. While high blood sugar is damaging to tissues, high levels of insulin are also damaging to some tissues.

  • Hypertension - high blood pressure
  • Baldness - early-onset androgenetic alopecia in both men and women
  • Low testosterone (Male Hypogonadism)
  • Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)
  • Leptin Resistance - inability to sense when caloric needs are satisfied, leading to overeating
  • mTOR activation - amplifies aging effects, contributes to the initiation and development of tumors

More information: